In such cases, they have a deliberative vote Bishops Emeritus are not members of the Conference by law, but it is desirable that they be invited to the plenary assembly, in which they take part with a consultative vote. It is good, moreover, to call upon them for meetings or study commissions created to examine matters in which they have particular competence.
The Legate of the Roman Pontiff , while he is not a member of the Episcopal Conference and has no right to vote, is invited to the opening session of the Episcopal Conference, according to the Statutes of each episcopal assembly. As a member of the Conference, certain fundamental duties pertain to the Bishop:. Inspired by a profound love for the Church, he should be vigilant that the activities of the Conference are always conducted according to the canonical norms. If he is elected to fulfil a particular task within the Conference, he should not refuse without just cause.
He should study carefully the topics proposed for discussion, if necessary with the help of experts, in such a way that his arguments are always well founded and formulated according to his conscience. If it concerns a general decree endorsed by the recognitio of the Holy See, the Bishop should apply to the Holy See for a dispensation allowing him to distance himself from its contents.
The Conference may invite non-members to attend its meetings, but only in certain cases and only with a consultative vote Clearly, the apostolate in the modern world has to face pastoral matters and problems that can only be adequately addressed at the national level. For this reason, canon law has assigned certain areas to the joint attention of the Bishops, according to the particular circumstances.
In each of these areas, the competence proper to the Conference must be consistent with the responsibility of each Bishop in his own diocese. Such harmony should arise naturally when there is respect for the canonical norms which regulate the matters under discussion. Episcopal Conferences are intended to be instruments of mutual assistance for Bishops in fulfilling their pastoral responsibilities.
Therefore, as indicated by the Second Vatican Council, the Apostolic See grants them the power to issue binding norms on certain matters 91 , and to adopt particular decisions , which each Bishop should accept faithfully and apply in his diocese The normative power of the Conference is exercised by the Bishops gathered in a plenary assembly, which makes it possible to engage in collegial dialogue and to exchange ideas; it requires the favourable vote of two thirds of the members who have a deliberative vote.
These norms must be reviewed by the Holy See before they are promulgated, in order to guarantee their conformity with universal canon law No other structure within the Conference may take to itself the competence of the plenary assembly Under certain conditions established by law, the Bishops assembled in the Episcopal Conference also exercise a doctrinal function 95 , since they are authoritative teachers and instructors in the faith for their people.
In fulfilling this doctrinal role, especially when they have to address new questions or shed light on new problems emerging within society, the Bishops should be conscious of the limited scope of their pronouncements, inasmuch as their Magisterium is not universal, even though it is authoritative and official The Bishops should bear in mind that doctrine is a bond of communion benefiting the whole People of God, which requires that they follow the universal Magisterium of the Church and take steps to ensure that it is communicated to the faithful.
Doctrinal statements by the Episcopal Conference, if they are to constitute authentic Magisterium and be published in the name of the Conference, must be approved unanimously by the Bishop members or else by a two-thirds majority of the Bishops with a deliberative vote. In the latter case, these doctrinal statements must obtain the recognitio of the Holy See before they can be published.
They must be sent to the Congregation for Bishops or the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, whichever has oversight of the territory concerned. These Dicasteries will proceed to grant the requested recognitio after consultation with other competent departments of the Holy See When doctrinal statements by the Episcopal Conference are proposed for approval, non-episcopal members of the Conference do not have the right to vote in the plenary assembly Should a number of Episcopal Conferences find it necessary to act in solidum , they must first seek the authorization of the Holy See, which will indicate the norms to be observed in each case.
Prescinding from such cases, individual diocesan Bishops enjoy the personal authority to choose whether or not to adopt and enforce guidelines drawn up in agreement with other Bishops within the same region. Yet it would not be licit to extend the power of the Conference, transferring to it the jurisdiction and the responsibility of its members for their dioceses, since only the Roman Pontiff is competent to effect such a transfer On his own initiative or at the request of the Conference, the Supreme Pontiff may issue a special mandate in those cases where he judges it opportune Various agencies and commissions dependent on the Episcopal Conference have a specific competence to assist the Bishops and to prepare and put into effect the decisions of the Conference.
If the number of Bishops is insufficient to form such Commissions, it is possible to create alternative structures such as councils, made up of priests, religious and laity with a Bishop presiding. This fundamental criterion should remind those in charge of the commissions to avoid any action based on a false sense of independence or autonomy, as for example the publication on their own initiative of guidelines in a particular pastoral area, or a way of dealing with diocesan structures and commissions that bypasses the essential role of the respective diocesan Bishop. Through his episcopal ordination, the Bishop receives a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit which configures him in a singular way to Christ, Head and Shepherd.
Jn has imprinted his human and divine face, his likeness, his power and his strength in the Bishop Therefore, the Bishop, sanctified in the sacrament through the gift of the Holy Spirit, is called to respond to the grace received through the laying on of hands, sanctifying himself and conforming his personal life to Christ in the exercise of the apostolic ministry. This configuration to Christ allows the Bishop to submit his whole being to the Holy Spirit in order to integrate within himself his different roles as member of the Church and simultaneously head and shepherd of the Christian people, as brother and as father, as disciple of Christ and teacher of faith, as son of the Church and, in some sense, father of the Church, as minister of the supernatural rebirth of Christians.
The Bishop should always remember that the effect of his personal holiness is never limited to the purely subjective level, but redounds to the good of the faithful entrusted to his pastoral care. The Bishop must be a man of contemplation as well as a man of action, so that his apostolate can become contemplata aliis tradere.
Fully convinced that nothing he can do serves any purpose unless he be with Christ , the Bishop must be in love with the Lord. Moreover, he should always remember that the credibility of his episcopal ministry depends on the moral authority and authenticity which arise from the holiness of life underlying his exercise of juridical power Hence, with every means at his disposal, the Bishop should tirelessly promote the holiness of the faithful and he should take steps to enable the people of God to grow in grace through the celebration of the sacraments By virtue of his communion with Christ the Head, the Bishop has the strict obligation to present himself as the perfecter of the faithful , that is, as teacher, promoter and example of Christian perfection for the clergy, for consecrated persons living the evangelical counsels, and for the laity, each according to his or her particular vocation.
The icon of the nascent Church, which presents Mary together with the Apostles and the disciples of Jesus united in persevering prayer, waiting for the Holy Spirit, expresses the indissoluble bond between Mary and the successors of the Apostles As a mother, both to the lay faithful and to the Pastors, as a model and a type of the Church , she sustains the Bishop in his interior task of configuration to Christ and in his ecclesial service. From Mary, the Bishop learns the art of contemplating the face of Christ, from her too he draws consolation for the exercise of his ecclesial mission and strength to proclaim the Gospel of salvation.
At the altar, he makes his own the fiat with which Our Lady offered herself at the joyful moment of the Annunciation and again in sorrow at the foot of the Cross. The Virgin has a special presence in the celebration of the mysteries of salvation and is an exemplary model for the whole Church of listening and prayer, of self-offering and of spiritual maternity. It is from prayer that a Bishop draws light, strength and comfort for his pastoral activity.
For a Bishop, prayer is like the staff which supports him as he makes his pilgrimage through daily life. These practices nourish his faith and his life in the Spirit, which he needs if he is to live pastoral charity to the full in the exercise of his day-to-day ministry, in communion with God and in fidelity to his mission. Obviously, the holiness to which the Bishop is called requires the practice of the virtues, first and foremost the theological virtues, because by their nature they direct man towards God. The Bishop, as a man of faith, hope and charity, should order his life according to the evangelical counsels and the beatitudes cf.
Mt , so that he too, following the command given to the Apostles cf. Acts , may be a witness to Christ before the world, a true, effective, faithful and credible sign of divine grace, of charity and of other supernatural gifts. Its inner unity and energy is found through pastoral charity, which may rightly be called the bond of episcopal perfection: it is a fruit of the grace and the character of the sacrament of episcopal ordination Set on fire with this charity, the Bishop is moved to devout contemplation and imitation of Jesus Christ and his plan of salvation.
Pastoral charity unites the Bishop to Jesus Christ, to the Church, and to the world which must be evangelized. It enables him to act as an ambassador for Christ cf. Having accepted the office of Pastor in the expectation not of tranquillity but of hard work , the Bishop should exercise his authority in a spirit of service and should consider it his vocation to serve the whole Church with the mind and heart of the Lord The Bishop should set a fine example of fraternal charity and of a truly collegial spirit, offering loving care and support, both spiritual and material, to the coadjutor, the auxiliary and the Bishop Emeritus, to the diocesan presbyterate, the deacons and the faithful, and particularly to the poor and the needy.
His home and his heart should be open to welcome, advise, encourage and console. The Bishop should evaluate all things, accomplish all things and endure all things in the light of faith. He should read the signs of the times cf. Mt in order to discover what the Holy Spirit is saying to the Churches with regard to eternal salvation cf.
Acts ; ; The Bishop knows that he has been sent by God, the King of ages cf. Hence that healthy optimism which the Bishop manifests personally and, so to speak, radiates to others, especially to his closest advisers. As he tends the flock entrusted to him, the Bishop is greatly assisted by the virtue of prudence, which can be described as practical wisdom and the art of good government. Prudence enables him to act in fitting and appropriate ways to advance the divine plan of salvation, the good of souls and the good of the Church, setting aside all purely human considerations.
So the Bishop should model his style of governance both on divine wisdom, which teaches him to consider the eternal dimension of things, and also on evangelical prudence, which enables him to keep ever in mind, with the skill of a master builder 1 Cor , the changing needs of the Body of Christ. As a prudent Pastor, the Bishop should show himself ready to assume the responsibilities of his office, to enter into dialogue with the faithful, to exercise his powers, but also to respect the rights of others in the Church.
Prudence will prompt him to preserve the legitimate traditions of his particular Church, but it will also make him keen to encourage due progress, zealous in his search for new initiatives, while always safeguarding the unity that is needed. In this way, the diocesan community will move forward along the path of healthy continuity, adapting as necessary to new legitimate demands.
Pastoral prudence will make the Bishop mindful of his public image and the impression that he gives through the media. It will help him to assess whether it is appropriate for him to be present in certain places or social gatherings. Ever patient in bearing adversity for the Kingdom of God, he should be no less courageous and firm in the decisions that he makes, always observing the proper norms. At the same time, the Bishop should cultivate the humility which comes from recognizing his own weakness, that humility which — as Saint Gregory the Great says — is the primary virtue Moreover, because his daily pastoral concerns give the Bishop greater scope for personal decision-making, his scope for error is also greater, however good his intentions: this thought should encourage him to remain open to dialogue with others, always ready to learn, to seek and accept the advice of others.
Jn , is ever present before the eyes of the Bishop as the supreme example of that obedience which was the cause of our justification cf. Rom Conforming himself to Christ, the Bishop offers an outstanding service to unity and to ecclesial communion: his conduct demonstrates that no one in the Church may legitimately command others if he does not first offer himself as an example of obedience to the Word of God and to the authority of the Church In this way he demonstrates before God and before the Church his undivided love and his total availability for service, offering the world a shining testimony to the future Kingdom Through word and example, through his paternal and watchful care, the Bishop cannot ignore or leave undone the task of holding up to the world the great truth of a holy and chaste Church, in her ministers and in her faithful.
In these lamentable cases, the Bishop is required to act promptly, according to the established canonical norms, for the spiritual good of the persons involved, for the reparation of scandal, and for the protection and assistance of the victims. By acting in this way and living in perfect chastity himself, the shepherd goes before his flock like Christ, the Bridegroom who gave his life for us and left us an example of pure, celibate, ever fruitful and universal love. He should be visibly poor, he should be tireless in giving alms and he should lead a modest life which, without detracting from the dignity of his office, nevertheless takes account of the socio-economic conditions of his flock.
As the Council says, he should seek to avoid anything that might in any way alienate the poor, and even more than the other disciples of the Lord, he should seek to eliminate from his possessions every hint of vanity.
He should furnish his home in such a way that it never appears unapproachable, so that no one, even the humblest, is ever afraid to visit it Simple in his bearing, he should seek to be affable towards everyone, and should never indulge in favouritism on the basis of wealth or social standing. He should behave like a father towards everyone, especially towards those of lowly condition: he knows that he was anointed by the Holy Spirit, like Jesus cf.
Lk , and that he was sent first of all to proclaim the Gospel to the poor. In due time he should draw up his last will and testament, ensuring that, if any goods have come to him from the service of the altar, they return entirely to the altar. The call to holiness requires the Bishop to give serious attention to his interior life, through those means of sanctification which are useful and necessary to every Christian, but especially to a man consecrated by the Holy Spirit to govern the Church and to spread the Kingdom of God.
Above all, he should seek to fulfil faithfully and tirelessly the duties of his episcopal ministry as his personal path to holiness. The Bishop, as leader and model for priests and lay faithful, should receive the sacraments in an exemplary way. They bring necessary nourishment for his spiritual life, as they do for every member of the Church.
Above all, the sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Bishop celebrates daily, preferably cum populo , should be the centre and source of his ministry and of his personal sanctification. He should have frequent recourse to the sacrament of penance as a means of reconciliation with God, and he himself should be a minister of reconciliation among the People of God If he is ill and in danger of death, he should be prompt to receive the sacrament of the anointing of the sick and sacred Viaticum, with due solemnity and with the participation of clergy and faithful, for the edification of all.
Each month the Bishop will try to set aside a suitable period for spiritual recollection, and once a year he will make a retreat. In the exercise of sacred power, the Bishop must show himself to be rich in humanity in imitation of Jesus, the perfect man. To this end, his conduct should radiate those virtues and human gifts which arise from charity and are rightly valued in our society. These gifts and human virtues bear fruit in pastoral prudence, in wise care of souls and in good governance Not least among these gifts are: a rich humanity, a good and loyal spirit, a constant and sincere character, an open, forward-looking mind, a sensitivity to the joys and sufferings of others, a thorough self-mastery, kindness, forbearance and discretion, a healthy readiness to engage in dialogue and to listen, an habitual attitude of service The Bishop should always cultivate these qualities and seek to advance in them constantly.
In the course of his ministry, the Bishop should look to the example of canonized Bishops whose lives, teaching and holiness can shed light on his own spiritual journey and offer him direction. In order to keep alive the memory of Bishops who were outstanding in the exercise of their ministry, the Bishop, together with his presbyterate or the Episcopal Conference, should take steps to make these figures known to the faithful through new biographies and, if appropriate, he should introduce the cause for their canonization The Bishop will realize that he too has a duty to attend to his ongoing formation, a duty he shares with all the faithful whatever their age or condition in life, whatever their level of responsibility in the Church Eph As a shepherd of the People of God, the Bishop should continually attend to his human formation, allowing his episcopal personality to be shaped by the gifts of grace, and cultivating the human virtues listed earlier.
He needs to develop these virtues if he is to deepen his human sensitivity, to grow in his capacity to welcome, to listen, to engage in dialogue and personal encounter, and to expand his knowledge and his ability to lead others. In this way, his humanity will become richer, simpler, more authentic and more transparent, so as to reveal the mind and heart of the Good Shepherd.
The Bishop, like Christ himself, should manifest the most genuine and perfect human qualities if he is to share the daily life of his people and to be one with them in times of joy and sorrow.
In exercising his pastoral authority, the Bishop should constantly seek to achieve a good balance of all the facets of his personality as well as a healthy sense of realism, enabling him to discern and make decisions in serenity and freedom, aiming solely at the common good of persons. The sanctifying mission of the Bishop requires him to live deeply the new life of baptismal grace and the pastoral ministry to which he has been called by the Holy Spirit, conforming himself ever more closely, in a spirit of continual conversion, to the mind and heart of Jesus Christ.
This constant spiritual formation enables the Bishop to animate his pastoral activity with an authentic spirit of holiness, tirelessly promoting and sustaining the universal call to holiness. Conscious of his responsibility for the entire ministry of the Word in his particular Church , where he has been commissioned to proclaim the faith, to teach with authority and to bear witness to divine and catholic truth, the Bishop has an obligation to deepen his intellectual preparation through personal study, with a serious commitment to keeping abreast of cultural developments.
In the light of the Word of God, the Bishop should be able to discern and evaluate currents of thought, as well as anthropological and scientific trends, so as to respond, with fidelity to the doctrine and discipline of the Church, to the new questions arising in society. Keeping up to date in theology is necessary if the Bishop is to explore the inexhaustible riches of revelation, faithfully to guard and expound the deposit of faith, and to establish a respectful and fruitful working relationship with theologians.
Such dialogue can lead to new insights into the deepest truths of the Christian mystery, an ever greater understanding of the Word of God and the appropriation of suitable methods and language with which to present it to the modern world. Through his theological reading, the Bishop can give an ever firmer foundation to his magisterial task for the enlightenment of the People of God. His knowledge of current theology also enables him to monitor the conformity of new theological ideas with the content of Tradition, countering objections to sound doctrine and correcting any distortions.
Pastoral formation requires from the Bishop an evangelical discernment of the socio-cultural situation, a readiness to listen, to enter into communion and into dialogue with his priests, especially the parish priests whose mission renders them particularly sensitive to the changing needs of evangelization. It is most valuable for the Bishop and his priests to share their experiences, to consider different approaches and to evaluate new pastoral resources.
Dialogue with experts in pastoral science and in socio-pedagogical fields further assists his pastoral formation; so too does in-depth study of the law, of liturgical texts and the spirit of the liturgy. Despite the inter-relatedness of the four aspects of ongoing formation — human, spiritual, intellectual-doctrinal and pastoral — the Bishop needs to pursue each of them individually. The whole of his formation is directed towards a deeper contemplation of the face of Christ and a true communion of life with the Good Shepherd.
Just as other members of the People of God are the ones primarily responsible for their own formation, so too the Bishop should consider it his duty to make a personal commitment to ongoing integral formation. By virtue of his mission in the Church, he has to offer the faithful an example in this area, since they look to him as a model disciple in the school of Christ. The Bishop follows him with daily fidelity in a life of truth and love, shaping his humanity by the grace of divine communion.
Communion with God in daily prayer leads to the serenity of spirit and the prudent intelligence which help the Bishop to relate to people with paternal openness and to evaluate carefully the various questions arising in pastoral governance. Proper attention to rest will allow the Bishop to nurture a profound humanity with wisdom, balance, joy and patience.
Following the example of Jesus himself, who invited the Apostles to rest from the labours of their ministry cf. The Bishop should remember that Sacred Scripture speaks of the necessity for rest, when it indicates that God himself, on completing his work of creation, rested on the seventh day cf. Gen This not only allows him to live his communion with the Successor of Peter and with the universal Church, but also provides useful insights for his pastoral work, so that he may enlighten the faithful regarding the major questions repeatedly asked of Christians by modern society.
Through study, the Bishop should follow developments in theology, so as to deepen his knowledge of the Christian mystery, to evaluate, discern and safeguard the purity and integrity of the faith. The Bishop should be particularly keen to participate, whenever possible, in formation gatherings arranged by various ecclesial bodies: the annual colloquium for newly ordained Bishops held by the Congregation for Bishops, meetings arranged by national or regional Episcopal Conferences or by continental Councils of Episcopal Conferences. So too are other cultural initiatives through which the seed of truth is sown in the field of the world.
On certain more important topics, the Bishop should seek opportunities to listen at length, to enter into dialogue with experts, sharing experiences, methods and new resources for pastoral ministry and the spiritual life. The Bishop should always remember that his lived communion with other members of the People of God, through daily contact with priests and lay faithful, provides the setting in which the Spirit speaks to him, reminding him of his vocation and mission, and forming his heart through the vibrant life of the Church. Hence the Bishop should always adopt an attitude of careful listening to what the Spirit is saying to the Church and in the Church.
In fulfilling his episcopal ministry, the diocesan Bishop should be guided by certain fundamental principles which characterize his modus operandi and inform his life. These principles transcend time and place. The Bishop should remember that he has been placed at the head of the Church of God in the name of the Father, whose image he makes present; in the name of Jesus Christ his Son, by whom he is constituted as teacher, priest and shepherd; and in the name of the Holy Spirit, who gives life to the Church Making the Lord present, speaking his word and administering his grace and his law, the Bishop renders a service to the people which helps them to know and to follow the will of the one Lord of all.
As an authoritative teacher of the faith, the Bishop sets revealed truth at the heart of his pastoral action as the primary criterion with which to evaluate opinions and ideas emerging from the Christian community and from civil society. Good government requires the Bishop to do all in his power to seek the truth and to make every effort to perfect his teaching, attentive not only to the quantity but also to the quality of his pronouncements. In this way he will avoid the risk of adopting pastoral solutions of a purely formal nature which fail to address the substance of the problems.
His pastoral activity is authentic when it is anchored in truth. He should promote unity in faith, in love and in discipline, so that the diocese is aware that it forms a vital part of the whole People of God. The unity which the Bishop seeks to promote is not proposed as sterile uniformity, but it encompasses legitimate diversity, which he is called to safeguard and to encourage.
Ecclesial communion will lead the Bishop to work constantly for the common good of the diocese, mindful that this is subordinated to the good of the universal Church and that, in turn, the good of the diocese prevails over that of individual communities. So as not to hinder any legitimate particular good, the Bishop should make it his business to acquire accurate knowledge of the common good of the diocese.
This knowledge should be continually updated and confirmed through frequent visits among the people of God entrusted to him — so that he comes to know them — and also through study, socio-religious research, the counsel of prudent persons and constant dialogue with the faithful, since modern life is subject to such rapid changes. The ecclesiology of communion requires the Bishop to involve all Christians in the one mission of the Church. In fact all Christians, individually and collectively, have the right and the duty to cooperate in the mission which Christ entrusted to his Church, each according to his own particular vocation and gifts received from the Holy Spirit In those things not essential to the common good, the baptized justly enjoy freedom of opinion and of action.
In governing the diocese the Bishop should willingly recognize and respect this healthy pluralism of responsibility and this just freedom, whether of persons or associations. He should gladly communicate to others a sense of responsibility, both individual and collective, and he should encourage this in those who hold office in the Church, showing them his full confidence; in this way they will accept and fulfil with zeal the tasks that fall to them by virtue of canon law or their vocation. In guiding his particular Church, the Bishop should follow the principle according to which he should not normally take to himself what others can accomplish well.
On the contrary, he should show respect for the legitimate competence of others, granting appropriate faculties to his co-workers and encouraging healthy initiatives, individual or collective, among the faithful. The Bishop should consider it his duty not only to stimulate, encourage and increase the good work taking place in his diocese, but also to coordinate it, always respecting the freedom and the legitimate rights of the faithful, thus avoiding wasted efforts, unnecessary duplication of labour and harmful tensions. When other personal ecclesiastical jurisdictions exist within his diocesan territory, either of Latin rite e.
In conferring offices within the diocese, the Bishop ought to be guided solely by supernatural criteria and the pastoral good of his particular Church. Therefore he should look first of all to the good of souls, respecting the dignity of persons and making use of their talents in the most appropriate and beneficial way, in the service of the community, always assigning the right person to the right post.
The Bishop, in guiding his diocese, should observe the principles of justice and legality, knowing that respect for the rights of all in the Church requires that everyone, including himself, be subject to canon law. For the common good and the good of every baptized person, the faithful, in fact, are entitled to be guided in a way that takes account of the fundamental rights of the person, the rights of the faithful, and the general discipline of the Church. The example of the Bishop should lead the faithful to be more assiduous in fulfilling their duties towards one another and towards the Church.
He should avoid governing according to an unduly personal interpretation of ecclesial life. The diocese is entrusted to the pastoral care of the Bishop, assisted by his presbyterate; he presides over it with sacred power, as a teacher of doctrine, a priest of sacred worship and a minister of governance The diocesan Bishop , in exercising his sacred power, should keep always before him the example of Christ and should assume an authentic spirit of evangelical service towards the portion of the People of God entrusted to his care In fulfilling his mission, the diocesan Bishop should always remember that the community over which he presides is a community of faith, needing to be nourished by the Word of God.
It is a community of charity, spiritual and material, issuing forth from the fountain of the Eucharist. It is a community of apostolate, in which all the children of God, either individually or jointly, are called to bear witness to the unsearchable riches of Christ. The diversity of vocations and ministries which make up the particular Church requires the Bishop to exercise his ministry not in isolation, but in close union with his co-workers, the priests and deacons. He is further assisted by members of institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life, which enrich the particular Church with fruitful charisms and the witness of holiness, charity, fraternity and mission.
The Bishop should have a lively sense of being the foundation and visible principle of unity for his particular Church. He should promote and continually safeguard ecclesial communion in the diocesan presbyterate, so that his example of dedication, of openness, of goodness, of justice, of effective and affective communion with the Pope and his brother Bishops should always unite the priests more closely with one another and with him.
No priest should feel excluded from the paternity, the fraternity and the friendship of the Bishop. This spirit of communion with the Bishop will encourage the priests in their own pastoral solicitude as they lead their people towards communion with Christ in the unity of the particular Church. Regarding the lay faithful, the Bishop will promote communion by incorporating them into the unity of the particular Church, according to their own vocation and mission, recognizing their just autonomy, listening to their advice and evaluating with great care legitimate requests regarding their spiritual needs Thus, members of associations, movements and ecclesial groups, united with one another and with their Bishop, should be able to cooperate with the priests and with diocesan agencies so as to usher in the Kingdom in the society which they are called to evangelize and lead towards God.
In contrast with the power exercised in every other human society, episcopal power is distinguished by its divine origin and by the context of ecclesial communion and mission. It has a pastoral goal and character which promotes unity in faith, in sacraments and in ecclesial discipline, and orders the particular Church in accordance with its nature and ends.
This power is proper, ordinary and immediate.
In view of his role as coordinator and focal point of diocesan missionary activity, the Bishop should make every effort to open his particular Church to the needs of others, awakening in the faithful a missionary spirit, finding men and women to work in the missions and enkindling a fervent apostolic and missionary spirit among the presbyterate, among religious and members of societies of apostolic life, among the students of his seminary and among the lay faithful. Persaud, Chantelle Reading buddies: What are students actually doing during this time? Holloway, Kevin Jayson Education's anomaly: Voices of African-American principals in predominantly white schools. Using the old Paris Meridian, this lies exactly at Robert Schuller? Murphy, Christina Anne Working in a high-performance corporate culture: Effects on employee perspective and health. After the war the eighth Electorate was created and given to Friedrich V's son
Nevertheless, its exercise is ultimately regulated by the supreme authority of the Church — the Roman Pontiff — and so can be restricted in certain respects for the advantage of the Church or of the faithful In virtue of this power, Bishops have the sacred right and duty before the Lord to issue laws for the faithful, to make judgements and to regulate everything pertaining to the good order of worship and the apostolate Hence the distinction between the legislative, judicial and executive functions of episcopal power The functions of teaching, sanctifying and governing are intimately interconnected.
Following the example of the Good Shepherd, the entire ministry of the Bishop is focused on serving God and the flock In order to accomplish his mission, the Bishop teaches, counsels and persuades, but he should also exercise his authority and sacred power when this is required for the building up of the faithful In treating problems and in making decisions, the salvation of souls is the supreme law to which no exception can be made In conformity with this principle, the Bishop should exercise his authority in such a way that the people can accept it as paternal care and not as an oppressive yoke: he should offer his flock dynamic but discreet guidance, not imposing unnecessary burdens hard to bear cf.
Mt , but demanding only what Christ and his Church lay down, only what is truly necessary or particularly conducive to safeguarding the bonds of charity and communion. The Bishop will judge all things with prudence, according to that balanced canonical wisdom which is intrinsic to the whole ordering of the Church, ever mindful of the human person, who in every situation must be guided towards his supernatural good, while at the same time mindful of the common good of the Church.
With a merciful and benign yet firm spirit, he will rise above personal interests, avoiding undue haste or partisan spirit, and will be sure to listen to the interested parties before reaching a judgement on their actions. The Bishop, realizing that he is not only father and head of the particular Church, but also a brother in Christ and a member of the Christian faithful, does not act as if he were above the law, but observes the same rule of justice which he applies to others By virtue of the diaconal dimension of his office, the Bishop should avoid authoritarianism in the exercise of his power and should be ready to listen to the faithful and seek their cooperation and their counsel, through the channels and structures established by canonical discipline.
There is a real interplay, as it were a perichoresis, between the Bishop and the faithful. The latter, by virtue of their baptism, are responsible for the building up of the Body of Christ, and hence for the good of the particular Church For his part, gathering up the insights which emerge from the portion of the People of God entrusted to him, the Bishop authoritatively proposes measures that assist each individual to realize his true vocation The Bishop should recognize and accept the great diversity that exists among the faithful, their different vocations and charisms, taking care not to impose a rigid uniformity, and avoiding unhelpful constraints or authoritarian measures.
This does not exclude, but rather presupposes the exercise of his authority, as well as his counsel and exhortation exhortation, so that the roles and activities of each person may be respected by others and rightly ordered to the common good. In exercising the legislative function, the diocesan Bishop should keep in mind some basic principles:.
Legislative power in the diocesan forum belongs exclusively to the diocesan Bishop. This grave responsibility, instead of preventing the Bishop from listening to advice and seeking the cooperation of diocesan structures and councils, actually requires him to do so before issuing norms or general directives for the diocese. The diocesan Synod is the instrument par excellence for assisting the Bishop in establishing the canonical ordering of the diocesan Church It follows from the very nature of the particular Church that the meaning of legislative power does not consist solely in the local enforcement or application of juridically binding norms issued by the Holy See or the Episcopal Conference, but it extends also to the regulation of any pastoral matter in the diocesan forum that is not reserved to the supreme authority or to some other ecclesiastical authority Nonetheless, legislative power should always be exercised with discretion, so that the norms always respond to a real pastoral necessity.
The diocesan Bishop fully realizes that his power is subject to the supreme authority of the Church and to the norms of canon law. Thus, when enacting laws for the good of the diocese, he should always ensure the necessary harmony between these local pastoral decrees or guidelines and universal canonical discipline or the particular law established by Episcopal Conferences or particular councils.
The Bishop should take care that legislative and canonical texts are drawn up with precision and technical-juridical rigour, avoiding contradictions, useless repetitions, or a multiplication of rulings on a single matter. He should also ensure the necessary clarity so that it is obvious when an instruction is obligatory and when it is merely a guideline, what type of conduct is prescribed and what is prohibited.
For this purpose he should avail himself of the assistance of specialists in canon law, who should never be lacking in a particular Church. Moreover, a precondition for the just regulation of any aspect of diocesan life is precise knowledge regarding the situation of the diocese and the circumstances of the faithful, insofar as these have a significant influence on the way people think and act.
In exercising the judicial function, the Bishop should keep in mind the following general criteria:. When he judges that he has assembled sufficient proof of the facts which gave rise to the scandal, he should proceed formally to correct or admonish the accused Yet when this does not suffice to repair the scandal, restore justice and bring about the rehabilitation of the person, the Bishop should proceed with the imposition of penalties, which may be applied in either of two ways :.
In particular, taking account of the singular importance and pastoral impact of sentences concerning validity or nullity of marriage, he should devote great care to this area, in harmony with the instructions of the Holy See. Where necessary, the Bishop should do all that is required to prevent abuses, especially those which suggest an attempt to introduce a divorce-like mentality in the Church. He will also fulfil whatever responsibilities he may have for interdiocesan tribunals.
In the exercise of the executive function, the Bishop should keep in mind the following criteria:. When it is delegated for individual cases, it must be interpreted strictly In this case, the lower authority is immediately to notify the higher, in order to avoid contradictory decisions In the decree, without harming the good reputation of persons, he should indicate the precise motives both in order to justify his decision and to avoid any appearance of arbitrariness.
This also makes it possible for the person concerned to have recourse against the decision He may choose formally to renew the appointment of the office-holder, or to extend it for less than a full term. Otherwise, he may confirm that the term of office has expired and appoint the person concerned to a new responsibility. When the law prescribes that the Bishop should take action on a particular matter, or if the interested party legitimately presents a petition or a recourse, the decree should be issued within three months The auxiliary Bishop, the principal co-worker of the diocesan Bishop in the governance of the diocese, is appointed in order to provide more effectively for the good of souls in a large or densely-populated diocese or for other reasons connected with the apostolate.
The Bishop should therefore look upon the auxiliary as a brother and should involve him in his pastoral projects, decisions and in all diocesan initiatives, so that through their mutual exchange of ideas and opinions, they may proceed in unity and harmony in their intentions and endeavours. For his part, the auxiliary Bishop, conscious of his role at the heart of the diocese, should always act in complete obedience to the diocesan Bishop, respecting his authority.
The request must not be motivated simply by considerations of honour or prestige. In this way the diocesan Bishop personally avails himself of the opportunity to evaluate the quality of his episcopal service for the good of the whole diocese. The diocesan Bishop should not entrust the auxiliary Bishop with the care of a parish nor with tasks of a purely marginal or occasional nature.
Moreover, the diocesan Bishop should assign to him those tasks which, according to legal norms, require a special mandate. In particularly grave circumstances, including those of a personal nature, the Holy See may appoint an auxiliary Bishop with special faculties When circumstances so suggest, the Holy See may appoint a coadjutor Bishop The diocesan Bishop should welcome him gladly in a spirit of faith and should promote an effective communion by virtue of their joint episcopal responsibility, establishing an authentic partnership which, with a coadjutor, should be particularly cordial and fraternal for the good of the diocese.
The diocesan Bishop ought to show similar agreement with an auxiliary equipped with special faculties The Holy See may, in particular circumstances, take the extraordinary action of appointing an apostolic Administrator to a diocese that has its own Bishop. When he reaches his seventy-fifth birthday, each Bishop is bound to observe what is prescribed in the Code of Canon Law.
However, for the sake of the good of souls and of his particular Church, the Bishop will hasten to present his resignation earlier if his strength is diminished, or if he has great difficulty in adapting to new circumstances, or if for some other grave cause he becomes less able to fulfil his office Diocesan priests, in fact, are the principal and irreplaceable co-workers of the order of Bishops, invested with the unique and identical ministerial priesthood which the Bishop possesses in its fullness.
The Bishop and the priests are constituted as ministers of the apostolic mission. The Bishop is father of the priestly family and through him the Lord Jesus Christ is present among believers. For this reason, just as Jesus manifested his love for the Apostles, so too the Bishop knows that it is his duty to show particular love and solicitude for priests and candidates for the sacred ministry Guided by sincere and unwavering charity, the Bishop should take care to assist his priests in every way, so that they come to appreciate the sublime priestly vocation, live it with serenity and defend it with vigour, radiant with joy as they faithfully carry out their duties The rapport between a Bishop and his presbyterate needs to be inspired and nourished by charity and by a vision of faith, such that their juridical bonds , deriving from the divine constitution of the Church, appear as a natural consequence of the spiritual communion each one has with God cf.
In this way, the apostolic labours of priests will be more fruitful, since their union of will and of intent with the Bishop deepens their union with Christ, who continues his ministry as the invisible head of the Church acting through the visible hierarchy In exercising his ministry, the Bishop relates to his priests not merely as a ruler towards his subjects, but rather as a father and a friend He should devote himself wholeheartedly to creating a climate of affection and trust such that his priests may respond with a convinced, pleasing and firm obedience The practice of obedience is strengthened rather than weakened if the Bishop, as far as possible and without prejudice to justice and charity, explains to the interested parties the reasons for his decisions.
He should show equal care and attention to every priest, because all of them, while their gifts will be many and varied, are engaged in the service of the Lord as members of a single presbyterate. The Bishop should encourage a spirit of initiative among his priests, avoiding anything that might lead them to understand obedience in a passive and irresponsible manner. He should ensure that each gives his best and does so generously, placing his own capacities in the service of God and of the Church, with the mature freedom of the sons of God The Bishop should consider it his sacred duty to know his diocesan priests well, their character, their aptitudes, their aspirations, the depth of their spiritual life, their zeal, their ideals, their state of health, their financial situation, their families and everything which concerns them.
And he should know them not just in groups as for example when he meets the clergy of the whole diocese or of a deanery or vicariate or through pastoral bodies, but also individually and, as far as possible, in their place of ministry. This is the purpose of his pastoral visits, when as much time as possible should be given to personal matters, rather than to administrative concerns which might equally well be addressed by a cleric delegated by the Bishop In a paternal spirit and with genuine familiarity, he should initiate a dialogue, discussing with the priests whatever is in their interest, the responsibilities assigned to them and the problems arising in diocesan life.
The Bishop should encourage priests of different generations to come to know one another, urging in the younger ones a genuine respect and veneration for their older brethren, and in the older priests a desire to support and accompany their younger brethren, so that the whole presbyterate feels united around the Bishop, jointly responsible with him for the particular Church.
The Bishop should manifestly hold his priests in esteem, showing them trust and praising them as they deserve. He should respect and require others to respect their rights and should defend them against unjust criticism He should act swiftly to resolve controversies, so as to avoid the prolonged disquiet which can overshadow fraternal charity and do damage to the pastoral ministry. The pastoral activity of priests must be ordered with a view, firstly, to the good of souls and the needs of the diocese, but also giving due consideration to the different aptitudes and legitimate aspirations of each priest, respecting their human and priestly dignity.
Such wisdom in governing is manifested, among other things, by the following:. To this end, he should always seek the opinion of prudent persons, and should establish the suitability of candidates, even by means of an examination The "Mega" is the database every serious chessplayer needs. The database contains 7. ChessBase 15 - Mega package Find the right combination! Makropoulos, Russian Chess Federation asks the Commission to consider and if needed improve and approve the below mentioned amendments to the current system of determining the World Chess Champion at the 87th FIDE Congress 04— Herewith a number of basic conditions should be fulfilled: The FIDE President would have the power to veto any proposed match.
We as ACP believe that this idea is completely detrimental to chess for a number of reasons, among which: - The World Champion Title must be achieved only through a proper sport cycle, especially at a time when chess is increasingly recognized as a sport. Advertising Books, boards, sets: Chess Niggemann. Books, boards, sets: Chess Niggemann. Discussion and Feedback Join the public discussion or submit your feedback to the editors.
See also. Carlsen's official rating in August will equal his own peak rating of points — the highest ever achieved. Wesley So finished in sole second place.
Express report. The winner and maybe more qualify for the Candidates Tournament. The Grand Prix series is back too, albeit as a quintet of knockout tournaments. Dates and host cities are still TBA.
Here's what we know now Nf3 d5!? It is a very useful surprise weapon. Let us list the advantages of playing this particular opening: 1 Shock value 2 It is very aggressive. Black can take over the initiative early.
Black is basically taking the game to the opponent as early as move two. Not many openings do that! It's a perfect opening for young players and club players to adopt. Let Andrew Martin select a repertoire for you on this 60 mins, which, if used with discretion, will rack up the points. I am sure that you will enjoy this unusual tour of the Elephant Gambit. Discuss Rules for reader comments User. I also understand the ACP's point of view, especially the remark about the Candidates tournament, but I'm sure there are ways around it.
For instance, making sure that organizing the Candidates tournament is much less expensive than funding a WC match it already is, probably , so that organizers still have interest in hosting the Candidates. Now he is upset and wants to take chess back to Russia. O lord, let this happen please.
Nothing sweeter than controversies, chaos and disorder fueled by oligarchy and capitalist systems. PS: Now that everything is for sale, how much does a GM title cost these days? Place a price on it and let the boys start hussling! I want to be referred to as GM Oputu if I can afford it What a shame we even have to discuss that. Terrible idea. If a challenge could be done in a day it would be a different story, but a challenge takes several weeks - several months if you count the preparation.
That means any money-backed challenge match will impact the qualifying cycle, probably making matches with qualified challengers less frequent. Here is a simpler proposal: FIDE decides that every world champion, upon winning, automatically becomes a Russian citizen. With my proposal the best player in the world can be the world champion but at the same time we do not hurt the feelings of the esteemed members of the Russian Chess Federation.
Chessspawnvt : Carlsen has also said time and again that he thought the WC title was less important than the number 1 spot, so I don't really trust him to defend the traditional WC matches. Totally stupid. You cannot enter the same river twice. What worked a years ago is not going to work anymore, now that the whole structure is built around the world championship cycle. It looks like the Russians want to get the right to give to some state backed GM of theirs the opportunity to play for the title, even if their players are no longer the strongest in the world.
The best is karijakin, who they imported from Ukraine by the way. No other young Russian player appears to be a Crack.
In any case their proposal is utterly dangerous and detrimental to the chess world. I think the Russian proposal's value is really to open the debate on changing the system for qualification and WCC matches. We have a situation where Carlsen is looking like a player who will dominate at the top for a long time.
In the past, the title of Grandmaster carried immense prestige. With the rapid increse in the number of titleholders since the 's, the title's prestige has been . Grandmaster Restoring Prestige to a Devalued Title mostly better than Prestige Squeeze Occupational Prestige in Canada since mostly better than The.
Over time, that will give him more power to dictate terms for his title defenses. Time will tell. I wonder if Agon has finally gotten the player contracts for the WCC to the players When one consideres that just a few years ago, Kirsan was promoting and using a knockout tournament to determine the WC and the same system with women until just recently, my view is that anything that open the debate and possibility of change is good.
Chessspawnvt : I would really like to see the old system again over a three year cycle of course. But it seems to me the proposal is still worse than what we have now : a lousy qualification cycle is still better than no qualification cycle at all. Denix : every 4 months? This would mean the WC would not be able to play in tournament any more. And besides players need at least that time to prepare for a WC match.
And as was said, the value of a WC match comes from its rarity. If everyone has a shot at it and there is two match every year, it will lose all of its interest. Well, I'm not sure that would be really help the corruption problem, but that would certainly mean much less money for the player RCF Proposal is very interesting. Of course the challenger should be at least in the top 20 in the Ratings List and there must be at least 4? Why wait for so long to receive the next World championship money? The stronger player most likely the current world champion will win anyway.
There is no question that some challengers will have more difficulty than others in arranging funding for an independent challenge. What this proposal indirectly addresses is the current candidates structure which is far from ideal in that after the candidates' tournament there is no match play leading to the naming of a world championship challenger. IMO, the two best choices are to move toward independent challenges or go back to interzonal tournaments followed by match play to find the challenger.
If the road chosen is the old private system, there could be a requirement that the champion has an obligation to accept a challenge from one of the top five player based on FIDE rating within perhaps two years of the last title match. Lastly, let's get Kirsan's cronies at Agon and Chess Lane out of the picture. Their business incompetence is pathetic and the secrecy of their machinations is destructive of promoting chess as a viable professional sport. The chess world deserves better. This almost sounds like an April s Fool to me To bad we are in August!
Because fuck democracy. Not unsurprisingly this is coming out of a country run by a de facto dictator. Russia definately is not buying the title since EU and US citizens and companies have times more money compaired to Russian citizens and companies. The possibility of winning the title honestly without money is not affected by the proposal. But I can understand chess professionals many of whom are Russians. This proposal is very bad since one can win a title and lose it in a month or two. The concept of holding a title for 2 years is destroyed. The value of the title is decreased since one can not prepair for a good match in such a short period of time.
It is not good for chess. One can understand Russian Chess Federation, since they want foreign companies to sponsor good matches and thus increase popularity of chess, but this is not a good way. There are other ones. A Danailov proposal comes to my mind. If memory serves me, he wanted to organize matches with a challenger who shows money, namely Radjabov at that time.