go According to press reports, 70, to 80, arrived in Delhi according to the Khaksar circle, assembly of Khaksars was much more than 70, to 80, It is important to note that, despite strict preventive measures by the Government of British India and Section in place in Delhi, such a large number of Khaksars were still able to gather.
He asked Khaksars to come to Delhi so that in the case that the division of India could not be prevented, they would then extend the boundary of Pakistan up to Delhi. If the boundary of Pakistan was extended, the massacre of people in Punjab could have been averted. Since the required number , could not gather and All-India Muslim League which was not willing to work with Khaksars had already accepted the truncated Pakistan on June 09, as given by Lord Mountbatten despite Khaksar protest at the Imperial Hotel , Mashriqi was highly saddened and disheartened.
With a heavy heart, on July, 04,, Mashriqi disbanded the Khaksar Tehrik.
Question: What is the total number of Khaksars that were injured, killed or jailed by the authorities during the freedom struggle for independence of British India? Answer: There is no exact figure so far. However, from to , a large number of Khaksars lost their lives due to unjust police firings. Furthermore, thousands of Khaksars were thrown in jail and many were sentenced to rigorous imprisonment ranging from months to life imprisonment. Mashriqi tried his best to seek their release, but the Government remained adamant and kept them in jail. Question: When was the Islam League formed?
What was the purpose of the Islam League? Answer: Many people are unaware of the fact that Mashriqi formed the Islam League soon after independence in October of The Islam League was the first political party to register in Pakistan. Among the main purposes of the Islam League was to seek freedom for Kashmir, undo the injustices of the Radcliffe Award, and ensure that the civil rights of the Muslims in India who never migrated to Pakistan were fully protected.
Question: Was Mashriqi the head of the Islam League? Answer: No. As founder of the League, Mashriqi could have easily become the head of the party, but he opted against it; instead, the president and other office bearers were chosen through the electoral process and the party was run by common people. Answer: An entire book would be needed to comprehensively answer this question.
In short, Mashriqi did his best to liberate Kashmir, but anti-Mashriqi elements in power always undermined his efforts. However, he was arrested and the media was only allowed to cover those aspects that suited the Government. Also see the video below on YouTube or Dailymotion. This rare and historic video shows glimpses of Allama Mashriqi with cap and beard, appearing at slightly past the half-way mark in the video , and also the Khaksars arriving at the Khaksar Camp where they were gathering to march to India.
Though the quality of the video is very poor, the Allama and the Khaksar assembly can be seen. This was to prevent him from promoting candidates of the Islam League which was founded by Mashriqi. If the judiciary had been made independent from the initial years of independence, Mashriqi would not have been arrested for no reason. Question: Why was Mashriqi implicated in Dr. Answer: In , Mashriqi was falsely implicated in Dr.
Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah Paid Subsidy for Pakistan: Elections Manipulated eBook: Nasim Yousaf: lazirumamyde.cf: Kindle Store. Buy Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah Paid Subsidy for Pakistan: Elections Manipulated: Read 1 Books Reviews - lazirumamyde.cf
This is yet another example of political victimization. Political opponents wanted to get rid of Mashriqi and sought legitimacy through a court trial that would justify his hanging. Despite their desperate efforts, the prosecution failed to prove the charge filed against him and Mashriqi was honorably acquitted by the court and released on November 17, Answer: Of course!
This is a long and sad tale that requires lengthy narration. In short, right after the creation of Pakistan, political opponents in power made Mashriqi's life extremely difficult. Intelligence agencies hovered around him, his family, his relatives and his followers. Police raids at his house, the offices of the Islam League, and the residences of his followers were a routine matter. Mashriqi also endured harassment, threats, and fabricated court cases against him. He was kept under house arrest or imprisoned at various times under false allegations and was put through physical and mental torture.
The political victimization by anti-Mashriqi elements has continued in books and articles and a lot of fabricated lies have been associated with him in order to damage his image. Question: How many times - both before and after independence - was Mashriqi arrested or his movements placed under government restrictions? In , the Madras Presidency was disbanded and Tamil Nadu was established. What do you think of the article?
Answer: Overall, the author of the article has done a good job in the piece.
However, his information regarding the Renault car French make is mistaken. Mashriqi did not receive the car from Hitler, but rather purchased it himself in during his trip to France. In fact, Mashriqi purchased all of his vehicles Renault, Hudson, and Jeep himself. In addition, why would Hitler present Mashriqi with a French car instead of a German make? Question: There was an article in Dawn, Karachi on December 30, According to the article, a Khaksar perpetrated the attack on Jinnah on July 20, Answer: I read the article.
First of all, the date of the attack on Jinnah was not July 20,; it was July 26, Regarding the misleading information that the assailant was a Khaksar, please see my letter to the Chief Editor of the Dawn Karachi below the editor of Dawn published a portion of the letter in the paper dated January 12, : January 08, The Chief Editor Dawn Haroon House, Dr.
Ziauddin Ahmed Road, Karachi , Pakistan. I would like to point out that this statement is completely false. In fact, in his ruling in the court case of the attack on Jinnah , Justice Blagden of the Bombay High Court strongly stated that there was absolutely no evidence that the assailant was a Khaksar. Therefore, there is no rationalization left to refer to the attacker as a Khaksar; I find it highly offensive and am deeply hurt to read it.
I also hope that in the future, Dawn will refrain from publishing articles containing misleading or false information. I would appreciate it if you could acknowledge receipt of this message. Thanks in advance for your assistance in this matter. Wishing you and your staff all the best. Answer: The media was highly controlled in those days.
Furthermore, some stories published in the press were either completely fabricated or misleading. Question: If Allama Mashriqi was against the creation of Pakistan, then why should he be considered a founding father of the country? Answer: All I can say is that anyone who fought for the freedom of British India should be considered a founding father of both Pakistan and India.
Mere drawing room politics could not have brought independence; it is well-known that achieving freedom requires resistance and sacrifice. The reality is that Pakistan and India could not have achieved freedom without the sacrifices and painstaking efforts of people like Mashriqi and the Khaksars. Anti-Mashriqi lobbyists in Pakistan discourage research on the subject, as digging deeper into history could result in the discovery of some inconvenient truths.
It is unfortunate to note that, for political reasons, any opposition to the partition of British India by Mashriqi and other Muslim leaders has been barred from discussion. Answer: I am not aware of any progress on this project. However, there is a great need for such an institution in order to create awareness among the public of the Khaksar struggle towards independence. Question: Are there any documentaries or films on the Khaksar Movement? Answer: None that I am aware of. However, I feel that this would be an excellent project.
If an individual has the resources, expertise and passion to make one, I would be more than happy to provide information. Answer: There is a great need for a dedicated research academy to collect and publish original Khaksar materials. Currently, historians and researchers have limited if any access to Khaksar documents. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the Khaksar materials be brought to light so that people can make an informed decision regarding the differing viewpoints of the Khaksar Tehrik when compared to the AIML.
Question: Where is Mashriqi buried? It was his desire to be buried in Ichhra, where he started the Khaksar Movement to revive the glory of the nation. Mashriqi also specified in his will how the money was to be spent including scholarships for bright and needy students for higher education.
Question: Does the Khaksar Tehrik still exist? This is because the Khaksar ideology has always been to serve the masses and bring equality. Unfortunately, few in Pakistan today seem to believe in this ideology. Question: What would Mashriqi have done if he was in power? Answer: First of all, Mashriqi would not have opted to become the Head of the State or the Government. He was not seeking power for himself. Despite his tremendous popularity, Mashriqi never contested an election before or after partition.
Answer: I consider myself lucky, as I had the opportunity to see, and interact with, Mashriqi in person when I was a child; during my school holidays, I used to stay at his house in Lahore. I was also fortunate to be able to learn about Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik through my mother, relatives, and the Khaksars. These experiences left a lasting impression on me, and so, I began my formal research on Mashriqi and the Tehrik in the USA in My research is still ongoing and I devote a substantial amount of my time towards the cause in order to enlighten people regarding the said subject.
Answer: The simple answer is that these titles were awarded to individuals in return for services rendered in accordance with the wishes of the British. The British would not have bestowed any title or honor upon a person who was working against the interest of the rulers. Answer: Unfortunately, it is incomplete and distorted. Also, for those materials that have been published, why have they not been made available in libraries?
Is this correct? Answer: This is an absolutely misleading statement! The Khaksars were free to keep membership of both parties at the same time. Hence, it was the AlML's policies that created dissention amongst the Muslims. Answer: To achieve peace in the region, Allama Mashriqi's vision of coexisting needs to be realized. If his philosophy, which opposes the Two-Nation Theory, was understood, the region would not have become one of the most dangerous areas in the world today.
They only had some ill-equipped Lashkars armed bands of unruly tribesmen primarily for settling scores among themselves in their unending tribal feuds or to suppress their Haris. He also extended the aim of the League. Answer: I consider myself lucky, as I had the opportunity to see, and interact with, Mashriqi in person when I was a child; during my school holidays, I used to stay at his house in Lahore. Casting the vote became an Islamic act. K Hangal who after migrating to India later emerged as a known Bollywood film actor, Kazi Mujataba, and Pohumal were also included in the organisation with Qadir Nizamani as the Secretary.
Both nations now possess nuclear arsenals, and if these weapons are ever used, this will result in colossal damage to humanity. To achieve lasting peace in the region and to create an environment in which people can benefit and progress, Pakistan and India should unite. Present and future generations will benefit from this, and this is best means to ensure a better future for South Asia, where many commonalities exist.
Answer: Despite difficulties, many books are written on Mashriqi; however, most of them are in Urdu. More books would have been written if freedom of speech existed in Pakistan. Moreover, materials on Mashraqi and the Tehreek are challenging to acquire. Access to the Khaksar material in the National Archives of Pakistan and India is difficult, and there is a general lack of Khaksar material in domestic and public libraries. Where Khaksar material is available, poor indexing and cataloging poses an additional challenge.
Question: Can you provide a list of your works? Answer: Thus far as of December 08, , I have published 11 books on South Asian history 15 books total including other topics , many articles, and have also compiled digital files of 19 rare works. Some of my works are listed below: Books: 1. Quaid-e-Azam M. Al-Islah newspaper British India, 2. Al-Islah Pakistan,, English 3. The Constitution of Free India, A. C reproduced in 4. Kharita Poetry, 5. The Radiance , Aligarh 8. Allama Mashriqi's speech in 9. Human Problem , English version Allama Mashriqi's speech in Insaani Muslah Human Problem, , Urdu version In the elections held in , the Indian National Congress won the majority seats, but declined to form a government.
Therefore on 1 April , and the Nawab of Chhatari, the leader of the National Agriculturist Parties, was invited to form a minority provisional government. The Bengal Legislative Assembly was the largest legislature in British India, serving as the lower chamber of the legislature of Bengal now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
It was established under the Government of India Act, The assembly played an important role in the final decade of undivided Bengal. Many notable speeches were delivered by Bengali statesmen in this assembly. The records of the assembly's proceedings are preserved in the libraries of the Parliament of Bangladesh and the West Bengal Legislative Assembly. History A. It was established under Article of the Constitution of the Pakistan.
The assembly has elected members, 99 regular seats, 22 seats reserved for women and 3 seats for Non-Muslims. The legislatures were created under Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom. Initially serving as small advisory councils, the legislatures evolved into partially elected bodies, but were never elected through suffrage.
Provincial legislatures saw boycotts during the period of dyarchy between and After reforms and elections in , the largest parties in provincial legislatures formed governments headed by a Prime Minister. A few British Indian subjects were elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which had superior powers than colonial legislatures.
British Indian legislatures did not include Burma's legislative assembly after , the State Council of Ceylon nor the legislative bodies of princely states. Advisory councils Legislative councils. There are a large number of parties with the name "Shiromani Akali Dal". The basic philosophy of Akali Dal is to give a political voice to Sikh issues and it believes that religion and politics go hand in hand.
The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. After independence, on 15 August , Jawaharlal Nehru assumed office as the first Prime Minister of India and chose fifteen ministers to form the First Nehru ministry. Background The Constituent Assembly was set up while India was still under British rule, following negotiations between Indian leaders and members of the Cabinet Mission to India from the United Kingdom. The provincial assembly elections had been conducted early in The Constituent Assembly members were elected to it indirectly by the members of these newly elected provincial assemblies, and initially included representatives for those provinces which came to form part of Pakistan, some of which are now within Bangladesh.
The Constituent Assembly had representatives, including nine women. The Indian National Congress held a large majority in the Assembly, with 69 percent of all of the seats, while the Muslim League held. The Governor of the Punjab was head of the British administration in the province of the Punjab. This lasted until it was replaced by the office of governor in the aftermath of the Montagu—Chelmsford Reforms. In , the British Raj came to an end and the countries of India and Pakistan were created. In , West Punjab was dissolved, and became Punjab pro.
The Cabinet Mission came to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, did not participate in every step but was present and it was divided into three groups A,B,C clusters. Background Towards the end of their rule, the British found that their temporary patronage of the Muslim League conflicted with their longstanding need for Indian unity.
The desire for a united India was an outcome of both their pride in having politically unified the subcontinent and the doubts of most British authorities as to the feasibility of Pakistan. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Punjab is the state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister.
Following elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly, the governor usually invites the party or coalition with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits. Following India's independence from Great Britain in , its members served as the nation's first Parliament. An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in by M. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in , C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August This offer, known as the August Offer, included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution.
Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of , elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution. The speaker is always a member of the Legislative Assembly. List of Presidents of the Madras Legislative Council Madras Legislative Council, the first representative legislature for the Madras Presidency political predecessor for Tamil Nadu was inaugurated in December as per the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. The presiding officer of the Council was known as the President.
The first President, Sir P. Rajagopalachari was not elected but nominated and took office on December 17, Rajagopalachari February 1 2 L. Swamikannu Pillai February September 1 3 M. Ratnaswami September 1 4 C. Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq 26 October — 27 April  was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century. Huq was a major political figure in British India and later in Pakistan including East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh.
He was born in Saturia, Barisal. He received his primary education in a village Maktob. Then he entered Barisal Zilla School. He passed the entrance examination in the Dhaka division. After that he went to Calcutta for higher education. He worked in the regional civil service and began his political career in Eastern Bengal and Assam in Huq was first elected to the Bengal Legislative Council from Dacca in ; and served on the council for 21 years until The First legislative assembly election for the Madras Presidency was held in February , as part of the nationwide provincial elections in British India.
The Indian National Congress obtained a majority by winning of seats in the Legislative Assembly. This was the first electoral victory for the Congress in the presidency since elections were first conducted for Madras Legislative Council in The Justice Party which had ruled the presidency for most of the previous 17 years was voted out of power.
The assembly was constituted in July and C. The victory in Madras was the Congress' most impressive electoral performance in all the provinces of British India. The Congress Government that was formed after the elections lasted till October , when it resigned protesting India's involvement in the Second World War. The next el. It is now the State of Odisha.
Under the Raj, it was a division of the Bengal Presidency with its capital in Cuttack.
On 1 April , the province of Bihar and Orissa was detached from Bengal, and the Orissa Tributary States were under the authority of the governor of Bihar and Orissa. In , Orissa became a se. History In Bihar was part of Bengal. On 14 October Orissa was occupied by the British Raj. On 1 April Bihar and Orissa became separate provinces.
The Government of India Act provided for the election of a provincial legislative assembly and a responsible government. Elections were held in , and the Indian National Congress took a majority of the seats but declined to form the government. A minority provisional government was formed under Muhammad Yunus. Therefore, the Governo. The prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire based on the Census of India, The Partition of India was the division of British India[b] in which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, or Crown rule in India.
The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14—15 August The partition displaced between 10 and 12 million people along re. In India's parliamentary system, the Constitution names the President as head of state de jure, but his or her de facto executive powers are vested in the prime minister and their Council of Ministers. Appointed and sworn-in by the President, the prime minister is usually the leader of the party or alliance that has a majority in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India.
He was succeeded by fellow Congressman Lal Bahadur Shastri, whose month term also ended in death. It is led by Pieter Groenewald. Its current stated policy positions include amending affirmative action and land reform to protect the interests of Afrikaners. Foundation and early years The Freedom Front was founded on 1 March by members of the Afrikaner community under Constand Viljoen, after he had left the Afrikaner Volksfront amidst disagreements.
Seeking to achieve his goals through political means, Viljoen registered the Freedom Front with the Independent Electoral Commission IEC on 4 March to take part in the April general elections. This date has also been given as 7 March. On 12 March Viljoen handed in a list. The Indian Independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end the British rule in India.
The movement spanned a total of 90 years — The first organised militant movements were in West Bengal, but they later took root in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service British India examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V.
Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of non-violence and civil disobedience, and several other campaigns. Poets and writers such as Subraman. Early life and education Venkateswaran was born on 2 January to Sundaram Ayyar of Pattamadai in Tinnevely district. The state of Tamil Nadu in India has an electorate of more than 70 million people 7 crores  The complete list of Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Tamil Nadu in India since The area under the present-day state of Tamil Nadu has been part of different territorial configurations under Madras Presidency and Madras State in its history.
It was established in to be the headquarters of the English settlements on the Coromandel Coast. The territory under the presidency comprised only Madraspatnam and surrounding regions. But, after the An. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. The capital of the province is Jaffna.
The majority of the Sri Lankan Civil War was played out in this province. The province then came under Portuguese, Dutch and British control. In the British gained control of the entire island of Ceylon. They divided the island into three ethnic based administrative stru. Events in the year in India. He served as INC president for two terms i. He was known for his simplicity and integrity. He played a major role in developing the infrastructure of the Madras state and worked to improve the quality of life of the needy and the disadvantaged. As the chief minister of Madras, he was responsible for bringing free education to the disadvantage.
Bombay Legislative Assembly came into existence in , as the legislature of Bombay Presidency, a province of British India. It functioned till , when separate states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were formed. The first session of the upper house, the legislative council was held a day later on 20 July Aden was detached in to be made a separate Colony of Aden in order to be kept out of jurisdiction of Bombay Presidency. Elections were held in in Bombay State for the legislative assembly.
After the Government of India Act, was passed which envi.
The majority live in and around the city of Durban, making it "the largest 'Indian' city outside India". At times Indians were subsumed in the broader geographical category "Asians". During the most intense period of segregation and apartheid, "Indian", "Asian", "Coloured" and "Malay" group identities controlled numerous aspects of daily life, including where a classified person was permitted to live.
Some citizens believed that these terms were improvements on the negatively defined identity of "Non-White", which was their previous. Its capital was in Shillong. The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province. It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in and re-established as a province in Purandar Singha was allowed to rule as king of Upper Assam in , but after that brief period Assam was annexed to Bengal by the British.
In British political control was imposed on western Naga communities. On 6 February Assam, including Sylhet, was severed from Bengal. The fourth legislative council election to Madras Presidency after the establishment of dyarchical system of government by the Government of India Act, in September Justice party won the election and P. Munuswamy Naidu became the first Chief Minister. The main opposition party - Swaraj Party did not contest the elections due to its participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Background The election was held amid the severe world economic depression. Justice party decided to open its doors for Brahmans after a resolution made in the Executive Committee meeting held on 15 June Congress decided to boycott the election again in a meeting held in Lahore in Though the Congress did not participate in the election, it allowed its individual members like Swami Venkatachalam Chettiar and R. Shanmugam Chettiar to contest as Independents. Therefore the contest was solely between the Justice Party and what was ca.
The family belonged to the Shia sect of Islam. He took interest in politics at an early age and joined the Indian National Congress. He selected Congress as they were leading India's struggle for independence from Britain. Municipal politics In the s and s, actively encouraged by the policy of Divide and Rule, communalism was at its peak in India. Awadh, dominated by vastly rich Muslim landlords ruling an overwhelmingly Hindu peasantry, had become a hotbed of Muslim separatism, and indeed the main source of funding for the Muslim League, which wanted to partition India and create Pakistan.
Since many of the land-owners of the region were Muslims, mu. The past of the British Raj refers to the period of British rule on the Indian subcontinent between and The system of governance was instituted in when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria who in was proclaimed Empress of India. It lasted until , when the British provinces of India were partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, leaving the princely states to choose between them.
The two new dominions later became the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The province of Burma in the eastern region of the Indian Empire had been made a separate colony in and became independent in Prelude Effects on the economy In the later half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India by the British crown and the technological change ushered in by the. The Interim Government of India, also known as the Provisional Government, formed in 2 September  from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the transition of British India to independence.
It remained in place until 15 August , the date of the independence and partition of India, and the creation of Pakistan. The Indian National Congress, the largest Indian political party, which had long fought for national independence, agreed to participate in elections for a constituent assembly, as did the Muslim League. The newly elected government of Clement Attlee dispatched the Cabinet Mission to India to formulate proposals for the formation of a government that would lead to an independent India. The elections to the two houses of legislatures of the Bombay Presidency were held in , as part of the nationwide provincial elections in British India.
The Indian National Congress was the single largest party by winning 86 of seats in the Legislative Assembly and 13 of 60 seats in the Legislative Council. The Congress Government that was formed after the elections under B. Kher lasted till October , when it resigned protesting India's involvement in the Second World War. The next election was held in Government of India Act of The Government of India Act of abolished dyarchy and ensured provincial autonomy.
It created a bicameral legislature in the Bombay province. The Assembly consisted of members who were further classified into General seats and those reserved for special communities and interests. The Legislative Council consisted of 60 members. The Minority Front is a political party in South Africa. Though the party aims to represent all minorities of South Africa, its support comes mainly from South Africa's Indian community.
Its largest base of political strength is in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, especially the city of Durban which is the cultural and demographic centre of South Africa's Indian community. It was led by Amichand Rajbansi until his death in December Minar e Pakistan where the bill of Lahore Resolution was passed. The leadership of the movement was mostly educated at Aligarh Muslim University. From the Aligarh Movement, the Indian Muslim community developed a secular political identity. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth.
Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect.
Ambedkar and Constitution of India on a postage stamp of India It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November and became effective on 26 January Elections in South Africa are held for the National Assembly, provincial legislatures and municipal councils. Elections follow a five-year cycle, with national and provincial elections held simultaneously and municipal elections held two years later.
The electoral system is based on party-list proportional representation, which means that parties are represented in proportion to their electoral support.
For municipal councils there is a mixed-member system in which wards elect individual councillors alongside those named from party lists. In elections of the National Assembly, every South African citizen who is 18 or older may vote, including since the election those resident outside South Africa. In elections of a provincial legislature or municipal council, only those resident within the province or municipality may vote.
All elections are conducted by the Electoral Commission of South Africa, which is an independent body established by the Constitution. History Coloured gathering in South Afric. Nityanand Kanungo was one of India's prominent politicians from the state of Odisha, who held successive high profile portfolios in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet.
He was a member of the Indian National Congress and served as a member of the Orissa Legislative Assembly from to and again from to He was again appointed a Minister in and served till , looking after the Home, Law, Industries and Agriculture portfolios.